Orphaned baby wallaby gets special attention. © PBS
Orphaned baby wallaby gets special attention. © PBS

Bibliography in English about wild animals in nature

Aaltola, E. “Animal ethics and the argument from absurdity”, Environmental values, vol. 19, no. 1 (February, 2010), pp. 79-98.

Benatar, D. “Why the naïve argument against moral vegetarianism really is naïve”, Environmental values, vol. 10, no. 1 (February, 2001), pp. 103–112.

Bruers, S. “The predation and procreation problems: persistent intuitions gone wild”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 85-91.

Bruers, S. “Moral illusions and wild animal suffering neglect”, The rational ethicist July 20, 2016.

Bruers, S. “On intervention in nature, human arrogance and moral blind spots”, The rational ethicist September 12, 2016.

Bruers, S. “Animal suffering and human bias” Animal Sentience, no. 7(9) (2016).

Carpendale, M. “Welfare Biology as an Extension of Biology. Interview with Yew-Kwang Ng”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 2 (2015), pp. 197-202.

Clark, S. R. L. “The rights of wild things”, Inquiry, vol. 22, no. 1-4 (January, 1979), pp. 171-188.

Clarke, M. & Ng, Y.-K. “Population dynamics and animal welfare: issues raised by the culling of kangaroos in Puckapunyal”, Social choice and welfare, 27, no. 2 (October, 2006), pp. 407–422.

Cowen, T. “Policing nature”, Environmental ethics, vol. 25, no. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 169–182.

Cunha, L. C. “If natural entities have intrinsic value, should we then abstain from helping animals who are victims of natural processes?”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 51-63.

Dawkins, R. “God’s utility function”, Scientific American, vol. 274, no. 6 (November, 1995), pp. 80–85.

Dawkins, R. “Chapter 4: God’s Utility Function”. River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life. New York: Basic Books, 1995.

Dello-Iacovo, M. “On terraforming, wild-animal suffering and the far future”, Sentience Politics Essay Competition, 2016.

Donaldson, S. & Kymlicka, W. Zoopolis: a political theory of animal rights, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Dorado, D. “Ethical interventions in the wild. An annotated bibliography”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, no. 3, vol. 2 (2015), pp. 219-238.

Dorado, D. “Sentience as moral consideration and disvalue in nature”, Animal Sentience 7(17) (2016).

Ebert, R & Machan, T. R. “Innocent threats and the problem of carnivorous animals”, Journal of applied philosophy, vol. 29, no. 2 (May, 2012), pp. 146-159

Everett, J. “Environmental ethics, animal welfarism, and the problem of predation: a Bambi lover’s respect for nature”, Ethics & the environment, vol. 6, no. 1 (Spring, 2001), pp. 42–67.

Faria, C. “Should we intervene in nature to help animals?”, Practical Ethics in the News Blog, University of Oxford, December 21, 2014

Faria, C. “What (if anything) makes extinction bad?”Practical Ethics in the News Blog, University of Oxford, October 5, 2015

Faria, C. & Paez, E. “Animals in need: the problem of wild animal suffering and intervention in nature”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 7-13.

Faria, C. “Making a difference on behalf of animals living in the wild: interview with Jeff McMahan”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 81-84.

Faria, C. “Disentangling Obligations of Assistance. A Reply to Clare Palmer’s “Against the View That We Are Usually Required to Assist Wild Animals””, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, no. 3, vol. 2 (2015), pp. 211-218.

Faria, C. “Why we should not postpone awareness of wild animal suffering”, Animal Sentience, 7(14) (2016).

Faria, C. “Animal Ethics Goes Wild: The Problem of Wild Animal Suffering and Intervention in Nature” (Doctoral thesis), March 15, 2016.

Favre, D. S. “Wildlife rights: the ever-widening circle”, Environmental law, vol. 9, no. 241 (1978-1979), pp. 241-281.

Fink, C. K. “The predation argument”, Between the species, vol. 13, no. 5 (August, 2005), pp. 1–16.

Gould, S. J. “Nonmoral nature”, Natural history, vol. 91, no. 2 (1982), pp. 19–26.

Hadley, J. “The duty to aid nonhuman animals in dire need”, Journal of applied philosophy, vol. 23, no. 4 (2006), pp. 445–451.

Hettinger, N. “Valuing predation in Rolston’s environmental ethics: Bambi lovers versus tree huggers”, Environmental ethics, vol. 16, no. 1 (Spring, 1994), pp. 1–10.

Hills, A. “Utilitarianism, contractualism and demandingness”, Philosophical quarterly, vol. 60, no. 239 (April, 2010), pp. 225–242.

Horta, O. “Disvalue in nature and intervention”, Pensata animal, vol. 34 (2010).

Horta, O. “The ethics of the ecology of fear against the nonspeciesist paradigm: a shift in the aims of intervention in nature”, Between the species, vol. 13, no. 10 (2010), pp. 163–187.

Horta, O. “Debunking the idyllic view of natural processes: population dynamics and suffering in the wild”, Télos, vol. 17, no. 1 (2010), 73–88.

Horta, O., “The problem of evil in nature: evolutionary bases of the prevalence of disvalue”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 17-32.

Horta, O. “Changing attitudes towards animals in the wild and speciesism”, Animal Sentience, no. 7(15) (2016).

Hutchins, M. & Wemmer, C., “Wildlife conservation and animal rights: are they compatible?”Advances in animal welfare science, 1986/87, vol. 3 (1987), pp. 111–137.

Jamieson, D. “Rights, justice, and duties to provide assistance: a critique of Regan’s theory of rights”, Ethics, vol. 100, no. 2 (January, 1990), pp. 349-362.

Kirkwood, J. K. & Sainsbury, A. W. “Ethics of interventions for the welfare of free-living wild animals”, Animal welfare, vol. 5, no. 3 (August, 1996), pp. 235–243.

Lauber, T. B., Knuth, B. A., Tantillo, J. A. & Curtis, P. D. “The role of ethical judgments related to wildlife fertility control”, Society & natural resources, vol. 20, no. 2 (2007), pp. 119–133.

Leenaert, T. “The extremely inconvenient truth of wild animal suffering”, The Vegan Strategist, June 1, 2016.

Mannino, A. “Humanitarian intervention in nature: crucial questions and probable answers”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 109-120.

McKelvie, L. “Seeking to increase awareness of speciesism and its impact on all animals: a report on Animal ethics”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 101-105.

McMahan, J. “The meat eaters”. The New York Times, September 19, 2010.

McMahan, J. “Predators: a response”. The New York Times, September 28, 2010.

McMahan, J. “The Moral Problem of Predation”. In Chignell, A.; Cuneo, T.; Halteman, M. Philosophy Comes to Dinner: Arguments on the Ethics of Eating. London: Routledge, 2013.

Moen, M. O. “The ethics of wild animal suffering”Nordic Journal of Applied Ethics, no.1 (2016), pp. 91–104.

Morris, M. C. & Thornhill, R. H. “Animal liberationist responses to non-anthropogenic animal suffering”, Worldviews: global religions, culture, and ecology, vol. 10, no. 3 (2006), pp. 355-379.

Mosquera, J. “The harm they inflict when values conflict: why diversity does not matter”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 65-77.

Murray, M. Nature Red in Tooth and Claw: Theism and the Problem of Animal Suffering. Oxford University Press, 2011

Naess, A. “Should we try to relieve clear cases of extreme suffering in nature?”, Pan ecology, vol. 6, no. 1 (1991).

Ng, Y.-K. “Towards welfare biology: evolutionary economics of animal consciousness and suffering”, Biology and philosophy, vol. 10, no. 3 (1995), pp. 255–285.

Nussbaum, M. Frontiers of Justice: Disability, Nationality, Species Membership. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2006.

Paez, E. “Intuitions gone astray: between implausibility and speciesism. ‘The predation and procreation problems’: a reply”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 93-99.

Paez, E. “Refusing Help and Inflicting Harm. A Critique of the Environmentalist View”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 2 (2015), pp. 165-178.

Paez, E. “Wild animal suffering and vegan outreach”, Animal Sentience no. 7(11) (2016).

Pearce, D. “Reprogramming predators”, The Hedonistic Imperative, 2009.

Pearce, D. “A welfare state for elephants? A case study of compassionate stewardship”, The Hedonistic Imperative, 2012.

Pearce, D. “A Welfare State for Elephants? A Case Study of Compassionate Stewardship”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 2 (2015), pp. 153-164.

Raterman, T. “An environmentalist’s lament on predation”, Environmental ethics, vol. 30, no. 4 (May, 2008), pp. 417–434.

Reese, J. “Wild animals endure illness, injury, and starvation. We should help.”, Vox, December 14, 2015.

Rollin, B. E. Animal rights and human morality, Buffalo: Prometheus Books, 1981.

Rolston, H. “Disvalues in nature”, The monist, vol. 75, no. 2 (April, 1992), pp. 250–278.

Ryf, P. “The Case of Wild Animals” (Master’s dissertation), September 15, 2016.

Sagoff, M. “Animal liberation and environmental ethics: bad marriage, quick divorce”, Osgoode Hall law journal, vol. 22, no. 1 (Spring, 1984), pp. 297–307.

Sapontzis, S. F. “Predation”, Ethics and animals, vol. 5, no. 2 (1984), pp. 27–38.

Sapontzis, S. F. Morals, reason, and animals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987.

Simmons, A. “Animals, predators, the right to life and the duty to save lives”, Ethics & the environment, vol. 14, no. 1 (Spring, 2009), pp. 15–27.

Singer, P. “Food for thought”, New York review of books, June 14, 1973.

Sözmen, I. B. “Harm in the wild: facing non-human suffering in nature”, Ethical theory and moral practice, February, 2013.

Sözmen, B. “Relations and Moral Obligations towards Other Animals”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 2 (2015), pp. 179-193.

Tomasik, B. “The importance of wild animal suffering”, Foundational Research Institute, July 2009.

Tomasik, B. “The importance of wild animal suffering”, Relations: Beyond Anthropocentrism, vol. 3, no. 2 (2015), pp. 133-152.

Torres, M. “The case for intervention in nature on behalf of animals: a critical review of the main arguments against intervention”, Relations, vol. 3, no. 1 (2015), pp. 33-49.

Vinding, M. “The Speciesism of Leaving Nature Alone, and the Theoretical Case for Wildlife Anti-Natalism”, March 20, 2016.

Wilcox, C. “Bambi or Bessie: Are Wild Animals Happier?”, Scientific American, April 12, 2011.

Witwicki, K. “Dear Science: Can we help wild animals?”, Sentience Politics, September 19, 2016.

Other resources

Animal Ethics (animal-ethics.org)

The situation of animals in the wild

Malnutrition and thirst in wild animals

Diseases in nature

Physical injuries in wild animals

Weather conditions and nonhuman animals

Animals in natural disasters

Antagonism in nature

Psychological stress in wild animals

Why wild animal suffering matters

Population dynamics and animal suffering

Evolutionary reasons why suffering prevails in nature

Can animals in the wild be harmed in the same ways as domesticated animals and humans?

Helping animals in the wild

Rescuing trapped animals

Vaccinating and healing injured and sick animals

Helping animals in fires and natural disasters

Helping hungry and thirsty animals

Caring for orphaned animals

Working for a future with fewer harms suffered by animals in the wild

Essays on Reducing Suffering (reducing-suffering.org) Essays written by Brian Tomasik about wild animal suffering, insects and other invertebrates, welfare biology, sentience and ethics, among other subjects.
Wild-Animal Suffering Research (was-research.org) “Our mission is to reduce the suffering experienced by nonhuman animals in nature. We do this by conducting multidisciplinary research across ecology, welfare biology, philosophy and economics. Through this we hope to identify policies to improve the wellbeing of all types of wild animals.”
utility farm (utility.farm) “utility farm’s mission is to research, raise awareness, and reduce the suffering of animals. utility farm publishes qualitative research and thought on utilitarianism, with a focus on applied ethics and wild animal suffering.”

Bibliography in English about speciesism

Adams, Carol J., 1991: The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory, New York: Continuum.

Armstrong, Susan J. & Botzler, Richard G. (eds.), 2003: The Animal Ethics Reader, London: Routledge.

Bekoff, Mark (ed.) 2009: Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare, 2nd ed., Santa Barbara: ABC Clio,.

Bernstein, Mark H., 1998: On Moral Considerability: An Essay on Who Morally Matters, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cavalieri, Paola, 2001: The Animal Question, Why Nonhuman Animals Deserve Human Rights, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

De Grazia, David, 1996: Taking Animals Seriously: Mental Life & Moral Status, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dunayer, Joan, 2004: Speciesism, Derwood: Ryce.

Francione, Gary L., 1995: Animals, Property and the Law, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Haynes, Richard P., 2008: Animal Welfare: Competing Conceptions And Their Ethical Implications, Dordrecht: Springer.

Linzey, Andrew & Clarke, Paul Barry (eds.), 1990: Political Theory and Animal Rights, London: Pluto Press.

Miller, Harlan B. & Williams, William H. (eds.), 1983: Ethics and Animals, Clifton: Humana Press.

Pluhar, Evelyn, 1995: Beyond Prejudice. The Moral Significance of Human and Nonhuman Animals, Durham: Duke University Press.

Rachels, James, 1990: Created from Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Regan, Tom, 1983: The Case for Animal Rights, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Regan, Tom & Singer, Peter (eds.), 1989: Animal Rights and Human Obligations, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Halls.

Rollin, Bernard, 1981: Animal Rights and Human Morality, Buffalo: Prometheus Books.

             1989: The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain and Science, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sapontzis, Steve F., 1987: Moral, Reason, and Animals, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Spiegel, Marjorie, 1988: The Dreaded Comparison: Human and Animal Slavery, London: Heretic Books.

Sunstein, Cass & Nussbaum, Martha (eds.), 2004: Animal Rights, Current Debates and New Directions, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Vinding, Magnus, 2015: Speciesism: Why It Is Wrong, And The Implications of Rejecting It.

Other resources

Animal Ethics“Animal Ethics was formed to provide information and promote discussion and debate about issues in animal ethics, and to provide resources for animal advocates. Detailed information on the data regarding the situation of nonhuman animals as well as on the arguments to defend animals is not always available, and we intend to provide it to all those who want to help them.”

built upon 
Pablo Stafforini’s and Oscar Horta’s bibliographies.
Last updated: October 2017